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Project Mulligan – OpenStack Redo

Jess Frazelle’s tweet recently got me thinking. 1

Jess Frazelle's original tweet

What if I could go back and undo basically the last eight years and remake OpenStack (whatever “OpenStack” has come to entail)? What if we could have a big do-over?

In this two-part blog post, I will be describing “Project Mulligan”, the OpenStack Redo.

This first post is about mission, scope, community, and governance.

The second part describes the architecture and technology choices that Project Mulligan will employ.

This is obviously a highly opinionated reflection on what I personally would change about the world I’ve lived in for nearly a decade.

I’m bound to offend lots of people along the way in both the OpenStack and Kubernetes communities. Sorry in advance. Try not to take things personally — in many cases I’m referring as much to myself as anyone else and so feel free to join me on this self-deprecating journey.


I’ve been involved in the OpenStack community for more than eight years now. I’ve worked for five different companies on OpenStack and cloud-related projects, with a focus on compute infrastructure (as opposed to network or storage infrastructure). I’ve been on the OpenStack Technical Committee, served as a Project Team Lead (PTL) and am on a number of core reviewer teams.

When it comes to technical knowledge, I consider myself a journeyman. I’m never the smartest person in the room, but I’m not afraid to share an opinion that comes from a couple decades of programming experience.

I’ve also managed community relations for an open source company, given and listened to lots of talks at conferences, and met a whole bunch of really smart and talented individuals in my time in the community.

All this to say that I feel I do have the required background and knowledge to at least put forth a coherent vision for Project Mulligan and that I am as much responsible as anyone else for the mess that OpenStack has become.

Redoing the mission

When OpenStack began, we dreamt big. The mission of OpenStack was big, bold and screamed of self-confidence. We wanted to create an open source cloud operating system.

The #1 goal in those days was expansion. Specifically, expansion of user footprint and industry mindshare. It was all about quantity versus quality. Get as much of the pie as possible.

As time rolled on, the mission got wordier, but remained as massive and vague as “cloud operating system” ever was. In 2013, the mission looked like this:

to produce the ubiquitous Open Source Cloud Computing platform that will meet the needs of public and private clouds regardless of size, by being simple to implement and massively scalable.

See the word “ubiquitous” in there? That pretty much sums up what OpenStack’s mission has been since the beginning: get installed in as many places as possible.

While “simple to implement” and “massively scalable” were aspirational, neither were realistic and both were subject to interpretation (though I think it is safe to say OpenStack has never been “simple to implement”).

Today, the mission continues to be ludicrously broad, vague, and open-ended, to the point that it’s impossible to tell what OpenStack is by reading the mission:

to produce a ubiquitous Open Source Cloud Computing platform that is easy to use, simple to implement, interoperable between deployments, works well at all scales, and meets the needs of users and operators of both public and private clouds.

“Meets the needs of users and operators of both public and private clouds” is about as immeasurable of a thing as I can think of. Again, it’s aspirational, but so broad as to be meaningless outside anything but the most abstract discussions.

Project Mulligan is getting a new mission in life:

demystify the process of provisioning compute infrastructure

It’s aspirational but not open-ended; singularly focused on the compute provisioning process.

Why “demystify”?

Despite “easy to use” and “simple to implement” being in OpenStack’s current mission, I believe OpenStack v1 has utterly failed to simplify a complex and often burdensome process. In contrast, OpenStack v1 has made a complex process (of provisioning infrastructure pieces) even more convoluted and error-prone.

If you ask me why I think OpenStack v1 has failed to deliver on these aspects of its mission, my response is that OpenStack v1 doesn’t know what it wants to be.

It has no identity other than being open and welcoming to anyone and everyone that wants to jump on the Great Cloud Bandwagon in the Sky. 2

And because of this identity crisis, there is zero focus on any one particular thing.

Well, that ends with Project Mulligan.

Project Mulligan isn’t trying to be a “cloud operating system”. Heck, it doesn’t even care what “cloud” is. Or isn’t. Or might be in the future for a DevOpsSysAdminUserator.

“OK, Jay, but what really IS ‘compute infrastructure’?”

I’m glad you asked, because that’s a perfect segue into a discussion about the scope of Project Mulligan.

Redoing the scope

Defining the scope of OpenStack is like attempting to bathe a mud-soaked cat in a bubble bath — a slippery affair that only ends up getting the bather muddy and angering the cat.

The scope of OpenStack escapes definition due to the sheer expanse of OpenStack’s mission.

Now that we’ve slashed Project Mulligan’s mission like Freddy Krueger on holiday in a paper factory, defining the scope of Project Mulligan is a much easier task.

We’re going to start with a relatively tiny scope (compared to OpenStack v1’s), and if the demand is there, we’ll expand it later. Maybe. If I’m offered enough chocolate chip cookies.

The scope of Project Mulligan is:

singular baremetal and virtual machine resource provisioning

I’ve chosen each word in the above scope carefully.


“singular” was chosen to make it clear that Project Mulligan doesn’t attempt to provision multiple identical things in the same operation.

baremetal and virtual machine

“baremetal and virtual machine” was selected to disambiguate Project Mulligan’s target deployment unit. It’s not containers. It’s not applications. It’s not lambda functions. It’s not unikernels or ACIs or OCIs or OVFs or debs or RPMs or Helm Charts or any other type of package.

Project Mulligan’s target deployment unit is a machine — either baremetal or virtual.

A machine is what is required to run some code on. Containers, cgroups, namespaces, applications, packages, and yes, serverless/lambda functions require a machine to run on. That’s what Project Mulligan targets: the machine.


The word “resource” was used for good reason: a resource is something that is used or consumed by some other system. How those systems describe, request, claim and ultimately consume resources is such a core concept in any software system that extreme care must be taken to ensure that the mechanics of resource management are done right, and done in a way that doesn’t hinder the creation of higher-level systems and platforms that utilize resource and usage information (like quota management and reservation systems, for example).

I go into a lot of detail below in the second part of this blog post on “Redoing the architecture” about resource management and why it’s important to be part of Project Mulligan.


At its core, the purpose of Project Mulligan is to demystify the arcane and hideously complex process inherent in provisioning machines. Provisioning involves the setup and activation of the machine. It does not involve operational support of the machine, nor does it involve moving the machine, restarting it, pausing it, or throwing it a birthday party.

The only things that are important to be in Project Mulligan’s scope are the items that enable its mission and that cannot be fulfilled by other existing libraries or systems in a coherent way.

From an interface perspective, this means the scope of Project Mulligan is the following:

  • Disovering and managing hardware inventory (these are the resources that will be provided to consumers of Project Mulligan’s APIs)
  • Requesting, claiming and ultimately consuming those machine resources

That’s pretty much it.

Who is Project Mulligan’s target audience?

I got some early feedback on some of these ideas from OpenStack’s bull in a China shop, Monty Taylor.

Suffice to say, Monty didn’t like Project Mulligan, and for very good reason.

Users of “cloud APIs” are not Project Mulligan’s audience.

Cloud APIs are those things that allow a user to manage their applications that run on cloud (i.e. someone else’s) infrastructure. Cloud APIs allow lifecycle management of virtual or baremetal machines and containers. Cloud APIs allow a user to create some storage buckets and place objects in those buckets. Cloud APIs enable the construction of private networks that applications running in that cloud can use to communicate with each other and with the outside world.

Cloud APIs encourage users to think in terms of automated use and re-use of some technology infrastructure.

Cloud APIs are awesome!

But that’s not what Project Mulligan is for. Project Mulligan’s target audience is the providers of machines, not the users of those machines.

I see a clear line between these audiences. And I’d like Project Mulligan to focus on the operator/provider audience, not the cloud API user audience.

Does the cloud ecosystem need One True Cloud API 3? Perhaps it does. But Project Mulligan won’t be focused on making that. Besides, Monty will need something to occupy his time when not tweeting.

But what about everything else?!

I imagine at this point, I’ve offended more than three quarters of the universe by not including in Project Mulligan’s scope any of the following:

  • Object storage
  • Network provisioning and management
  • Containers
  • Security
  • Monitoring and metrics
  • Orchestration
  • Filesystems
  • Deployment automation
  • Configuration management
  • AmigaOS

Are these things important? Yep. Well, OK, maybe not AmigaOS. Do I want them in Project Mulligan’s mission statement or scope? No. No, I don’t.

Sorry, not sorry

For the record, I believe there are certain projects inside the OpenStack ecosystem that can and should live entirely outside of OpenStack.

The Gnocchi project has already led the way in this regard by decoupling itself from OpenStack’s community and tooling and standing on its own two feet out there in the big beautiful world. Good for Gnocchi. Seriously, good for Gnocchi.

I believe Swift, Keystone, Designate and Cinder should do the same. Yes, that’s right folks. I’m formally proposing that projects that can stand alone and provide a well-defined, small scope of service live outside of the OpenStack community. I believe that by doing so, these projects will encourage re-use outside of the OpenStack echo-chamber and be a greater benefit to the broad cloud software ecosystem.

Some projects, like Swift, are already ready for the umbilical cord to be cut. I’d actually go so far as to say Swift was born into the OpenStack world as a full-fledged adult to begin with. It uses no shared OpenStack Oslo Python libraries, has no inter-service dependencies to speak of, does not rely on a coordinated release cycle, and its API is rock-solid and (yay!) does one thing and one thing well.

Cinder, Designate and Keystone are more traditional OpenStack projects with the requisite heavy dependency on a number of common OpenStack Oslo Python libraries. And their APIs are not nearly as clear-cut as Swift’s. But, that said, the services themselves are well-scoped and would benefit the larger cloud software ecosystem by living outside the OpenStack bubble. Cinder already has made inroads into the Kubernetes community by being a provider of persistent volumes there. Keystone and Designate, if run as separate projects outside the OpenStack community, would likely be forced to maintain a small scope of service.

What benefit does the OpenStack echo-chamber give to these projects, anyway? Well, let’s take a look at that topic in the next section about redoing the community.

Redoing the community

I have a number of thoughts about matters of community. My views on the subject have changed — and continue to change. These views vary depending on the day of the week, whether I’m currently taking anti-depressants, and whether I’ve happened to upset more than three people in the last 24 hours while reviewing their code.

After witnessing and participating in eight years of OpenStack’s governance style, I’m eager for a change. Well, actually, a number of changes, presented here in no particular order.

Less talk, more do

I know that some colleagues in the community adore lengthy conversations on IRC and mailing list posts that meander around like a bored teenager on Quaaludes.

However, I’m tired of talking. I want to see some action taken that really kicks Project Mulligan into high gear.

Code talks volumes compared to endless specifications. I’d much rather see a pile of proof-of-concept code than spend six months endlessly debating the minutae of an upgrade path on a specification.

But unless we have leaders with a “walk, don’t talk” mentality — people who aren’t afraid to break things — I’m afraid nothing will ever change.

We need no-bullshit, this is how it’s gonna be, types of people willing to say “oh fuck no” when needed 4. But also people who say “alright, show me in code” and “I accept the fact that we won’t be able to see the future and accurately predict every tiny detail of an upgrade path or side-effect of this feature, but let’s just do it and if we need to fix things later, we will.”

These leaders will always need to bear the brunt of inevitable criticism that will pour forth from those who seek to commandeer Project Mulligan for their own devices.

Speaking of that, let’s talk a bit about vendors.

Vendors should wear helmets

Vendors should be required to wear helmets at all times when visiting Project Mulligan. And not some silly London bobby helmet. I’m talking about those bright yellow construction helmets that both announce intentions as well as protect brain matter.

Nothing gets my goat more than a vendor that isn’t up front about their vendory-ness.

Is it too much for me to want to hear, just once, “hey, I’m aware this feature is a pet project of mine and really only helps me out”.

Or better yet, “yeah, I understand that this project is made up entirely of my own internal engineers and really its just a way for us to protect our intellectual property by being first to market and (ab)using the open source ecosystem for marketing and hiring advantages”.

Unfortunately, all too often, vendors pretend like there’s nothing to see here; move along…

I am sure that as people read this, some folks are thinking, “Hmm, am I a vendor?”

Well, you might be a vendor if…

  • You only ask for features that further your own company’s objectives
  • You cannot articulate why anyone other than your company would want a feature
  • You don’t review code outside of your own company
  • You only work on code for a driver to enable your own company’s technology
  • If you provide any documentation links at all, you can only provide links to internal documentation that first needs to go through legal review in order for that link to be made public

“But Jay, 95% of contributors to OpenStack work at some company that pays them to write code or work on deployment stuff for OpenStack. Don’t shit where you eat, my friend.”

Yes, you’re absolutely correct about that, my friend. And thank you for being concerned about my alimentary canal.

That said, being “a vendor” is exhibiting a certain set of behaviours when participating (or not) in an open source community. Being “a vendor” doesn’t mean “you work for a company”.

I’m afraid to be the bearer of bad news, but Project Mulligan, unlike OpenStack, isn’t going to cater to the vendors.

Project Mulligan won’t kick vendors out, but at the same time, we’re not going to go out of our way to deify “Platinum Members” or any such silliness. Vendors are free to take Project Mulligan’s source code and use it for their own products, but the Project Mulligan community won’t be spending its time promoting those products, developing “certification” policies for vendors to work towards, or attempting to cozy up to vendor-centric trade organizations that aren’t particularly related to the core mission of Project Mulligan.

Which brings me to something that bothers me about Kubernetes, from a community perspective.

Many questions on the Kubernetes user mailing list seem to be for specific vendor products — i.e. Google Cloud Platform, Google Kubernetes Engine, Red Hat OpenShift 5, etc — instead of being about Kubernetes itself. This is indicative of the tight coupling between the Kubernetes project and the vendors that host a Kubernetes SaaS offering.

While there are occasionally questions on the OpenStack mailing lists about a particular distribution of OpenStack — Mirantis OpenStack/Fuel, Red Hat OpenStack Platform or RDO, etc — not only are these questions rare, but they are often answered with pointers to the vendor’s support organization or bug tracker. In addition, you don’t see questions about getting support for one of the public clouds that run OpenStack.

This doesn’t seem to be the case for Kubernetes, where the vendored SaaS offerings don’t seem to be distinguishable from the open source project itself. Or at least, they don’t seem to be distinguishable for a great number of Kubernetes users. And the engineers working at the primary Kubernetes vendors don’t seem to have much of a problem with this equating of a product with the open source project that underpins those products.

Releases and time-based release cycles

It seems to me that coordinated releases are merely designed to coincide with the OpenStack Summit marketing events. I see no benefit whatsoever to time-based release cycles other than for marketing coordination purposes.

The time-based release cycles set artificial deadlines and freeze dates for no good reason and just end up placing a bunch of bureaucratic red tape and slowing to a crawl a process that frankly should be a simple thing that can be done (in a fully automated fashion) whenever necessary.

OpenStack Swift has been doing non-time-based releases this way for more than 8 years, eschewing the time-based release mechanics that most of the rest of OpenStack projects follow in favor of just tagging their source repository with a version tag when they feel that a certain fix or feature warrants a new release tag. And it works perfectly fine for Swift. The Swift project’s sensible decoupling and reliance on far fewer inter-project dependencies makes this possible.

I don’t see operators clamouring for a six-month release cycle — jeez, most operators have so much internal integration and legacy junk that they move at the speed of molasses with regards to migrating to more modern OpenStack releases. All operators care about is can they get from their old-ass version to some less old-ass version of their deployed software in a way that doesn’t result in too much downtime for their users.

I also don’t care about long-term support (LTS) releases. If distributions want to support those, they should feel free to do so. Many distributions make lots of money selling FUD about software that changes too quickly for their legacy customers to “handle in the way they’ve become accustomed”. So, it seems fair to me to have those vendors fully own their own LTS release processes and spend the money to maintain that code. I personally don’t feel it should be something an upstream development community should be involved in.

Therefore, Project Mulligan won’t be following a time-based release cycle. There will be no “spec freeze dates”, no “code freeze dates”, no “dependent library freezes”, no “milestone releases”. None of that.

When a feature or set of bug fixes warrants a “release”, then the source repository will get a new tag which will trigger the automated build of release artifacts. No red tape, no freeze dates.

Who gets to decide what “warrants a release”? Anyone should be able to propose that the source repository be tagged for release. If there are no objections from anyone in the contributor community, one of the core committers can trigger the release by pushing a tag. Simple is that.

Conferences and foundations

There are plenty people who like the large OpenStack Summit conferences.

I am not one of those people.

I have not attended the last two OpenStack summits; instead I’ve chosen to stick to the OpenStack Project Team Gathering events that are strictly for developers to discuss implementation proposals and brainstorm system design.

Perhaps this is because I remember the very first OpenStack Design Summit in Austin, Texas. There were about 150 engineers there, if I recall correctly. We discussed implementation possibilities, design choices, how to test Python software properly, how to set up an automated testing infrastructure system, and how to organize developers who were just beginning to come together around infrastructure software.

That first get-together, and the developer events that followed for the next couple years or so (until the OpenStack Foundation became a thing), were modeled after the successful Ubuntu Design Summit (UDS) concept where contributors to the Ubuntu Linux distribution would get together every six months to decide what would be the focus of the next release, what were the implementation proposals for various system pieces, and what decisions needed to be made to further the distribution.

The entire purpose of the original design summits was to be a working event. There were no presentations, no vendor displays, no sales people mixing with engineers. It was an event designed to get actual work done.

The need for OpenStack to become ubiquitous in the cloud world, however, meant that those halcyon days of productive, technical meetings slowly evolved into a more traditional IT conference, with keynotes, big-money sponsors, lots of marketing and sales people, along with the inevitable buzzword-ification of the whole affair.

Now, if you look at the session schedules for the OpenStack summits, all you see is buzzword soup, with never-ending mentions of “hyperscale”, “hyper-converged infrastructure”, “edge”, “NFV”, “carrier-grade”, “containers”, “MEC”, etc.

This obsession with following and promoting the hype of the day has led to a ludicrous lineup of vendor-driven sessions that tend to drive people who are looking for solid technical content screaming for the hills.

Here’s a smattering of sessions from the most recent OpenStack Summit in Vancouver that are perfect examples of the type of artisanal, farm-to-table buzzword vendor bullshit that has pervaded these events.

That last one is basically just an advertisement for Intel storage technology.

And then there are the sessions (keynotes even!) that are devoted to completely non-existent vaporware — such as Akraino — because the companies behind the vaporware idea (in the case of Akraino, that would be AT&T and, yes again, Intel) are a powerful vendor lobby inside the OpenStack Foundation since they are platinum foundation members.

These companies have successfully played the OpenStack Foundation and the Linux Foundation against each other to see which foundation will buy into their particular flavor of vaporware du jour. Intel and subsidiary Windriver Systems did this with the StarlingX project as well.

This kind of vendor-driven political bullshit is the reason that Project Mulligan will be quite different when it comes to community management.

Project Mulligan won’t have a foundation, sorry. I personally like quite a few of the employees at the OpenStack Foundation. I even (mostly) support recent transition to becoming an Open Infrastructure Foundation. That said, I can’t stand the hype machining that the foundation encourages along with the Linux Foundation 6 and its Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) offshoot and OPNFV project. 7

Nor will Project Mulligan have marketing conferences. For get-togethers, there will be a return to the original design summit idea, crossed with a “hack days” type of flavor. We’ll call them “Design Days”.

All developers as well as operators of Project Mulligan will be welcome at these design days. Developers of Project Mulligan means anyone who has committed code or anyone who wants to contribute code to Project Mulligan and learn about it.

The events will be self-funded and bootstrap-organized, likely at university venues that donate space over a long weekend. I used to organize these types of events in the MySQL community and they were very successful in bringing community contributors in the ecosystem together for a fun and productive few days.

On to the architecture and technology fun

Are you now craving more fast and loose opinions on how OpenStack lost its way with its mission? Well, then, proceed apace to part two for some tasty blather about blowing up the OpenStack technology and system architecture and starting over in Project Mulligan.


  1. Yes, I’m fully aware Jess Frazelle wasn’t actually asking the OpenStack community what the next version of OpenStack would look like. Rather, she was opining that some negative aspects of the OpenStack ecosystem and approach have snuck into Kubernetes. Still, I think it’s an interesting question to ponder, regardless. 
  2. Numerous folks have pointed to the “Big Tent” initiative from 2014-2015 as being the reason that OpenStack “lost its focus”. I’ve repeatedly called bullshit on this assertion, and will again do so here. The Big Tent initiative did not redefine OpenStack’s mission. It was a restructuring of how the OpenStack Technical Committee evaluated new project applicants to the OpenStack ecosystem. This is why the Big Tent was officially called “Project Structure Reform“. It changed governance procedures so that there was no more “Supreme Court of OpenStack” that had to be groveled to each time a new project came around. It absolutely did not broaden what OpenStack’s scope or mission was. Despite this, many people, even people knowledgeable of OpenStack governance internals, continue to equate the overly broad mission of OpenStack (which, again, has barely changed since 2012) with the “Big Tent” initiative. 
  3. As opposed to the existing environment that cloud users find themselves in, which is that every cloud vendor (AWS, GCP, Azure, DigitalOcean, etc) have their own APIs for performing actions against the resources exposed by their particular underlying infrastructure. You buy into that vendor’s API when you buy into the service they are providing. This is called lock-in. 
  4. OpenStack (as a whole as well as individual OpenStack projects) has suffered greatly from the inability of the maintainer community to say “no” (or even “fuck no”). Some people think it’s hard to say “no” to a feature request. Personally, I have no problem whatsoever saying “no” to virtually everything (saying “no” is basically my default answer to everyone other than my wife). Jess Frazelle’s article entitled “The Art of Closing” should be required reading for any contributor submitting a feature request and any maintainer looking for ways to not crush tender contributor feelings on a feature request (if that’s the sort of thing that keeps you up at night). 
  5. The current incarnation of OpenShift as of July 2018. They keep changing the damn thing’s purpose, rewriting it in different languages, and gradually updating the website so that you never quite know what will lead to in any given month. 
  6. Tell me again why an open source foundation needs a Chief Revenue Officer
  7. My prediction is that eventually the Linux Foundation will end up subsuming the OpenStack (neé Open Infrastructure) Foundation and turning it into one of its projects like OPNFV. At which point, there will be a huge backlash from the CNCF folks who despise all things OpenStack that they consider to be vendor-driven, legacy (in CNCF world, legacy == The World Before Docker, so anything before 2013.) and over-architected while forgetting that many of the same people and companies that initially developed those over-architected OpenStack solutions are now, gasp!, working on CNCF projects. At which point the Apache Foundation will put out an announcement saying how they could see all of this coming years ago. And we’ll all have a big come to Jesus (come to Jess?) moment and realize that, holy shit, we’re all actually working on the same kinds of problems and mostly we’ve just been letting our biases about programming languages, SQL vs. NoSQL, and Slack vs. IRC drive wedges in between what should be fairly rock-solid relationships.